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另一项研究证实,只有禁欲的性教育不起作用,但特朗普政府仍然想资助它。

然而另一项研究证实了禁欲性教育不起作用,但特朗普政府仍然想资助它。
华盖创意

With a man like唐纳德王牌担任美国总统,it should come as no surprise that major policy decisions are often turned into spectacles ripe with suspense or shock value (see: the build-up to他决定离开巴黎气候协议他那突如其来的推特风暴禁止变性人服兵役)。

But despite his typical fanfare,the President is also no stranger to discretion—and it's these quiet efforts,像那些取消青少年怀孕预防计划,that are just as likely to undermine the public's well-being without commanding a major spotlight.

Yes,in mid-July,the President stealthily slashed nearly $214 million in funding from more than 80 teen-pregnancy-prevention programs.As has been a trend in the Trump administration,这些削减的目标是前总统奥巴马特别提出的一些措施,一项2015年的措施,将五年的拨款授予那些将根据Reveal(调查报告中心的出版物)“找到科学有效的方法帮助青少年做出健康的决定,避免意外怀孕。”

这些资金不仅发放给主要的研究机构,like Johns Hopkins University and the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles,但也适用于为高危社区服务的孕期预防计划。现在,thanks to the Trump administration,the grants will cease to exist come 2018—and aside from funds' quickly drying up,依赖这些资金的研究项目将不具备完成研究和得出结论性结论所需的财政手段。

Despite how harmful this development is,it should come as no surprise to those who have followed the President's positions on health care.His Secretary of Health and Human Services,Tom Price,是一个长期的对手of any federal program that helps pay for contraception.And within HHS,some of the department's top officials are notorious for an abstinence-only approach—like Valerie Huber,the chief of staff to the assistant secretary of health.Huber is on record trying to rebrand abstinence education to something more palatable—she told PBS in 2016 that she prefers the term "sexual risk avoidance"—and has said she's skeptical that contraception can actually reduce unintended pregnancies.此外,她曾担任过一个组织的主席,该组织曾被称为全国禁欲教育协会(现名:Ascend)。她的最终目标是“规范性延迟比规范青少年性行为更重要,even with contraception."

Making this movement toward abstinence-only education all the more mind-boggling is the fact that the teen-pregnancy rate in the U.S.当前位于空前低.有一个很明显的原因:避孕比奥巴马之前(和经济适用的医疗法案)更容易获得。If the Trump administration has its way,however,this trend could quickly be in jeopardy.

除了削减对青少年怀孕预防计划和研究的资助,the White House is also looking to build up abstinence-only education;在拟议的2018年预算中,将拨出近3亿美元,在10年内分配给这些项目。But as research has consistently shown,这种性教育方法弊大于利。Recentlythe Journal of Adolescent Health published a reportexamining the consequences of abstinence-only-until-marriage policies and programs—one that updates their last deep-dive into the subject,2006年,正如预期的,禁欲计划根本不起作用。

“健康和医学研究人员一贯表明,高质量的性教育可以对青少年的健康和福祉产生可衡量的影响,which makes the appointment of abstinence-only-until-marriage education advocates to key positions within the Department of Health and Human Services deeply concerning," Leslie Kantor,Ph.D.M.P.H.JAH报告的合著者之一和美国计划生育联合会教育副主席,told魅力.

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In theory,abstaining from sex is a guaranteed way to prevent pregnancy or STIs.但是那些只采取禁欲方式的项目,rather than offering comprehensive sex ed,不要阻止年轻人发生性行为,也不要阻止他们怀孕或感染性传播疾病。Instead these programs have been found to withhold information from teens and young adults—and even spread false information—preventing them from making informed decisions about their own sexual choices.从男人和女人第一次做爱到第一次结婚的平均时间大约是十年,perpetuating the idea of abstinence until marriage is a futile effort.

To put things into context,federal support for abstinence-only efforts can be traced back to the early 1980s and the Reagan years.1981年,《青少年家庭生活法》为鼓励“贞洁”和“自律”的社区组织和基于信仰的团体拨款。在国会根据1996年的福利改革法案扩大了禁欲教育之后,这些计划得到了很大的推动,并且仅仅是在2000年建立了一个禁欲教育联邦拨款计划的基础上得到了进一步的推动。联邦基金变得更加容易获得,但只提供给那些专门针对12至18岁儿童的项目,并且没有向他们提供关于避孕或安全性行为的信息。

By 2004,the House Committee on Government Reform determined that such programs "contained false,misleading,or distorted information about reproductive health,misrepresentations about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancy,以及性别和少数性的成见,道德判断,宗教观念,and factual errors" (asJAH报道)。

不是巧合,state governments soon started saying "thanks,but no thanks" to federal funding designated for abstinence-only education (by 2009,几乎一半的人拒绝了这笔钱)。Though funding for abstinence-only plansincorporated into the 2010 Affordable Care Act to get it through Congress,资金主要用于预防怀孕计划和研究。But after a slew of new Republicans were ushered into Congress following the 2010 midterm elections,abstinence-only programs experienced renewed support.

These advocates,however,continue to ignore just how effective comprehensive sex ed actually is.像美国儿科学会和青少年健康与医学协会这样的医学团体已经反对禁欲计划,甚至联合国也宣布,所有年轻人都有权获得有关性健康的深入信息。此外,the Centers for Disease Control determined这些高质量的计划不仅降低了怀孕和性传播疾病的风险,but lower the initiation and frequency of sexual activity,decrease the number of sexual partners,对接受这种教育的青少年和年轻人来说,减少无保护性行为的可能性。

In short: Giving young people全部的the info they need about sex means they're actually more likely to truly abstain from sexual activity than those who are given abstinence-only education.但随着特朗普入主白宫,人们喜欢普莱斯和胡伯在卫生和公众服务部,abstinence-only advocates are having a huge moment—and teens and young adults,especially those in the most vulnerable communities,会因此而受苦的。